Women in economics stalled progress

Ladies in economics: Stalled progress

Shelly Lundberg, Jenna Stearns

Although the share of ladies in top PhD-granting departments a lot more than doubled between 19, this growth has stalled recently. This column reviews recent literature on women’s relative position in the discipline and assesses the data on barriers that female economists face in publishing, promotion, and tenure. It shows that differentialassessment of males and females is one element in explaining women’s failure to advance in economics and that continued progress toward equality in academic economics will demand a concerted effort to eliminate opportunities for bias in the hiring and promotion processes.

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Women in the boardroom

Gender diversity on company boards

Johanne Grosvold, Stephen Pavelin, Ian Tonks

It really is no secret that men outnumber ladies in the boardroom often over. This column talks about the most recent government efforts to redress this imbalance, particularly in the united kingdom, and asks why so few companies are prepared to raise the number of women on the board.

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Women in competitive environments evidence from expert chess

Ladies in competitive environments: Evidence from chess

Maria Cubel

Recent explanations for the persistence of both gender wage gap and the under-representation of ladies in top jobs have centered on behavioural aspects, specifically on differences in the responses of women and men to competition. This column shows that it could not be competition itself that affects women, however the gender of their opponent. Analysis of data from a large number of expert chess games demonstrates women are less inclined to win weighed against men of the same ability, and that is driven by women making more errors specifically when playing against men.

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Women in european economics

Ladies in European economics

Emmanuelle Auriol, Guido Friebel, Sascha Wilhelm

Despite around a third of PhDs in economics in america having been earned by women during the last few decades, under 15% of full professors in america were ladies in 2017. This column uses data scraped from research institute websites to research whether an identical ‘leaky pipeline’ exists in Europe. It finds that compared to the US, Europe have an increased share of women full professors within their research institutions, however the attrition rate between junior and senior ranks can be compared on both sides of the Atlantic. There are essential differences throughout Europe, however, with the Nordic countries and France scoring higher on gender equality than, for example, Germany and holland.

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Fight against corona: curevac: suspend patents for vaccines

Curevac boss Franz-Werner Haas wants to promote international cooperation. Photo: AFP / THOMAS KIENZLE

The head of the Tubingen biotech company Curevac is in favor of not letting the patents expire in the fight against Corona, but suspending them for a short time. This allows research to work faster.

Stuttgart – Franz-Werner Haas, the CEO of the Tubingen biotech company Curevac, calls for close international cooperation to promote the further development of a corona vaccine. In addition to sharing study data on the effectiveness of existing vaccines, it also includes the suspension of patents, he told our newspaper. The patents should be granted in principle, but suspended in the pandemic phase. He is following a recommendation of the World Trade Organization (WTO). "We need each other," says Curevac founder Ingmar Hoerr about combating the pandemic. "The board we are drilling is just too thick."

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Women as policymakers do make a difference

Women as policymakers do change lives

Thushyanthan Baskaran, Zohal Hessami

The actual fact that women are underrepresented in politics is often considered a significant social problem. But why should it be considered a problem? This column argues that whenever too little women hold political office, political decisions might not adequately reflect women’s needs and preferences. Using the exemplory case of the general public provision of childcare in Germany, it demonstrates municipalities with an increased share of female councillors expand public childcare quicker. The fact that the current presence of women has substantive effects on policies ought to be considered in current debates around the introduction of gender quotas in politics.

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Fight against coronavirus: spahn relies on rapid tests

The number of test options for the coronavirus is gradually growing. Federal Health Minister Spahn is now holding out the prospect of a new variant. In the ARD he speaks of additional staffing needs in health authorities.

In the corona pandemic, tests for at home could also be used in Germany in the future. You will see more and more additions to the test options in the next few weeks and months, said Federal Health Minister Jens Spahn after a conference with the health ministers of the federal states. "It will – I cannot tell you exactly when, but foreseeable because the companies are working on it – also be able to give the home test." Spahn did not name a point in time. We’ll see whether that will be in four, eight, twelve or 16 weeks, "but I’m very sure we’ll see".

According to Spahn, such a home test would first have to be approved by the authorities because Covid-19 is a reportable disease. With a view to the new test strategy announced for mid-October, Spahn said he was confident that so-called antigen tests could be used "in addition in large millions per month". It is currently being clarified who will pay the costs.

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With a little help from my bank japanese smes export decision

With just a little help from my bank: Japanese SMEs’ export decision

Tomohiko Inui, Keiko Ito, Daisuke Miyakawa

While large Japanese firms have already been present internationally for a long time, small firms have found it difficult to overcome the info obstacles connected with entering overseas markets. This column argues that lender banks might help as they not merely provide financial support but also business consulting services utilizing their extensive knowledge obtained through lending transactions. It implies that small and medium firms whose lender banks accumulate more overseas market information will start exporting.

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Fight against fake news: whatsapp restricts forwarding

WhatsApp restricts a function in order to prevent the rapid spread of fake news. In future, a message can only be forwarded to five recipients. India pioneered the restriction after lynching.

WhatsApp restricts forwarding in the course of action against the spread of fake news. With the latest WhatsApp versions, a message can from now on only be sent to five recipients, said the Facebook subsidiary. The messenger service is concentrating on the private exchange of content with "close contacts". So far, a message could be forwarded to individual persons or groups up to 20 times.

The new version of WhatsApp should first be available for the Android system, followed by Apple devices with iOS.

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With a little help from my friends peer effects in education

Our recent research uncovers peer effects in education as distinct from the contextual and other correlated influences. Our econometric strategy uses the topological structure of internet sites and network fixed effects to recognize each one of these effects separately.

Our analysis is manufactured possible through a distinctive database on friendship networks from the National Longitudinal Survey of Adolescent Health (AddHealth). The AddHealth database has been made to study the impact of the social environment (i.e. friends, family, neighbourhood and school) on adolescents’ behaviour in america by collecting data on students in grades 7-12 from a nationally representative sample of roughly 130 private and public schools in years 1994-95 (wave I). A subset of adolescents selected from the rosters of the sampled schools, was then interviewed again in 1995-96 (wave II), in 2001-2 (wave III), and again in 2007-2008 (wave IV). For our purposes, the most interesting facet of the AddHealth data may be the friendship information, which is situated upon actual friend nominations. It really is collected at wave I, i.e. when individuals were at school. Indeed, pupils were asked to recognize their finest friends from a school roster (up to five males and five females). Subsequently, we can reconstruct the complete geometric structure of the friendship networks.

In Calvó-Armengol et al. (2008), we exploit such information to check a peer-effect model which relates analytically equilibrium behaviour to network location. This analysis implies that the structure of friendships ties can be an important, therefore far unnoticed, determinant of a pupil performance at school. In Patacchini et al. (2011), we follow this type of research by exploiting the other AddHealth waves as a way to investigate whether such effect is carried as time passes. Indeed, the longitudinal structure of the survey provides information on both respondents and friends through the adulthood. Specifically, the questionnaire of wave IV contains detailed information on the best education qualification achieved.

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